God of wisdom, knowledge and new beginnings
Buddhi+ (wisdom), Riddhi+ (prosperity), Siddhi+ (attainment)
Although he is known by many attributes, Ganesha's elephant+ head makes him easy to identify. Ganesha is widely revered as the remover of obstacles, the patron of arts and sciences and thedeva+ of intellect and wisdom. As the god of beginnings, he is honoured at the start of rituals and ceremonies. Ganesha is also invoked as patron of letters and learning during writing sessions.These ideas are so common that Courtright uses them in the title of his book, ''Ganesha: Lord of Obstacles, Lord of Beginnings''. Several texts relate mythological anecdotes+ associated with his birth and exploits and explain his distinct iconography+.
Ganesha emerged as a distinct deity in the 4th and 5th centuries CE, during the Gupta Period+, although he inherited traits from Vedic and pre-Vedic precursors. He was formally included among the five primary deities of Smartism+ (a Hindu denomination) in the 9th century. A sect of devotees called the ''Ganapatya+'' arose, who identified Ganesha as the supreme deity. The principal scriptures dedicated to Ganesha are the ''Ganesha Purana+'', the ''Mudgala Purana+'', and the ''Ganapati Atharvashirsa+''.
Ganesha has been ascribed many other titles and epithets, including ''Ganapati'' and ''Vighneshvara''. The Hindu title of respect ''Shri+'' (Sanskrit+: ; IAST+: ; also spelled ''Sri'' or ''Shree'') is often added before his name. One popular way Ganesha is worshipped is by chanting a ''Ganesha Sahasranama+'', a litany of "a thousand names of Ganesha". Each name in thesahasranama+ conveys a different meaning and symbolises a different aspect of Ganesha. At least two different versions of the Ganesha Sahasranama exist; one version is drawn from the ''Ganesha Purana+'', a Hindu scripture+ venerating Ganesha.
The name ''Ganesha'' is a Sanskrit compound, joining the words ''gana+'' (Sanskrit: ; IAST: ; IAST: ). The term more generally means a category, class, community, association, or corporation.Apte, p. 395. Some commentators interpret the name "Lord of the ; IAST: '', meaning "group", and '''' (equivalent to ''Vighnesha''), '''' (equivalent to ''Ganapati'' and ''Ganesha''), ''Ekadanta'' (one who has one tusk), ''Heramba'', ''Lambodara'' (one who has a pot belly, or, literally, one who has a hanging belly), and ''Gajanana'' (IAST: ); having the face of an elephant.
''Vinayaka'' (Sanskrit: ; IAST: s and in Buddhist Tantras.Thapan, p. 20. This name is reflected in the naming of the eight famous Ganesha temples in Maharashtra known as the ''Ashtavinayak+'' (; IAST: ; refers to his primary function in Hindu theology as the master and remover of obstacles ('' has a dual nature; as Vināyaka, as a '''', and as '', a ''''." Krishan, p. viii.
A prominent name for Ganesha in the Tamil language+ is ''Pillai'' (). A. K. Narain differentiates these terms by saying that ''pillai'' means a "child" while ''pillaiyar'' means a "noble child". He adds that the words ''pallu'', ''pella'', and ''pell'' in the Dravidian family of languages+ signify "tooth or tusk", also "elephant tooth or tusk". Anita Raina Thapan notes that the root word+ ''pille'' in the name ''Pillaiyar'' might have originally meant "the young of the elephant", because the Pali+ word ''pillaka'' means "a young elephant".
In the Burmese language+, Ganesha is known as ''Maha Peinne'' (), derived from Pali+ ). The widespread name of Ganesha in Thailand+ is ''Phra Phikhanet'' or ''Phra Phikhanesuan'', both of which are derived from ''Vara Vighnesha'' and ''Vara Vighneshvara'' respectively, whereas the name ''Khanet'' (from ''Ganesha'') is rather rare.
In Sri Lanka+, in the North-Central and North Western areas with predominantly Hindu+ population, Ganesha is known as Aiyanayaka+ Deviyo, while in other Singhala Buddhist areas he is known as Gana deviyo.
Ganesha is a popular figure in Indian art+. Unlike those of some deities, representations of Ganesha show wide variations and distinct patterns changing over time. He may be portrayed standing, dancing, heroically taking action against demons, playing with his family as a boy, sitting down or on an elevated seat, or engaging in a range of contemporary situations.
Ganesha images were prevalent in many parts of India+ by the 6th century. The 13th century statue pictured is typical of Ganesha statuary from 900-1200, after Ganesha had been well-established as an independent deity with his own sect. This example
The influence of this old constellation of iconographic elements can still be seen in contemporary representations of Ganesha. In one modern form, the only variation from these old elements is that the lower-right hand does not hold the broken tusk but is turned towards the viewer in a gesture of protection or fearlessness (abhaya mudra+). The same combination of four arms and attributes occurs in statues of Ganesha dancing, which is a very popular theme.
Ganesha has been represented with the head of an elephant since the early stages of his appearance in Indian art. Puranic myths provide many explanations for how he got his elephant head. One of his popular forms, ''Heramba-Ganapati+'', has five elephant heads, and other less-common variations in the number of heads are known. While some texts say that Ganesha was born with an elephant head, he acquires the head later in most stories. The most recurrent motif in these stories is that Ganesha was created by Parvati+ using clay to protect her and Shiva+beheaded him when Ganesha came between Shiva and Parvati+. Shiva then replaced Ganesha's original head with that of an elephant. Details of the battle and where the replacement head came from vary from source to source. Another story says that Ganesha was created directly by Shiva's laughter. Because Shiva considered Ganesha too alluring, he gave him the head of an elephant and a protruding belly.
Ganesha's earliest name was ''Ekadanta'' (One Tusked), referring to his single whole tusk, the other being broken. Some of the earliest images of Ganesha show him holding his broken tusk. The importance of this distinctive feature is reflected in the ''Mudgala Purana+'', which states that the name of Ganesha's second incarnation+ is Ekadanta. Ganesha's protruding belly appears as a distinctive attribute in his earliest statuary, which dates to the Gupta period (4th to 6th centuries). This feature is so important that, according to the ''Mudgala Purana'', two different incarnations of Ganesha use names based on it: ''Lambodara'' (Pot Belly, or, literally, Hanging Belly) and ''Mahodara'' (Great Belly). Both names are Sanskrit compounds describing his belly (IAST: '''') of the past, present, and future are present in him. The number of Ganesha's arms varies; his best-known forms have between two and sixteen arms. Many depictions of Ganesha feature four arms, which is mentioned in Puranic sources and codified as a standard form in some iconographic texts. His earliest images had two arms. Forms with 14 and 20 arms appeared in Central India during the 9th and the 10th centuries. The serpent is a common feature in Ganesha iconography and appears in many forms. According to the ''Ganesha Purana'', Ganesha wrapped the serpent Vasuki+ around his neck. Other depictions of snakes include use as a sacred thread (IAST: ''), which consists of three horizontal lines. The ''Ganesha Purana'' prescribes a ''tilaka'' mark as well as a crescent moon on the forehead. A distinct form of Ganesha called ''Bhalachandra'' (IAST: ''''; "Moon on the Forehead") includes that iconographic element. Ganesha is often described as red in color.Nagar, Preface. Specific colors are associated with certain forms. Many examples of color associations with specific meditation forms are prescribed in the Sritattvanidhi, a treatise on Hindu iconography+. For example, white is associated with his representations as ''Heramba-Ganapati'' and ''Rina-Mochana-Ganapati'' (Ganapati Who Releases from Bondage). ''Ekadanta-Ganapati'' is visualized as blue during meditation in that form.
The earliest Ganesha images are without a vahana+ (mount/vehicle). Of the eight incarnations of Ganesha described in the ''Mudgala Purana''+, Ganesha uses a mouse (shrew) in five of them, a lion in his incarnation as ''Vakratunda'', a peacock in his incarnation as ''Vikata'', and Shesha+, the divine serpent, in his incarnation as ''Vighnaraja''. ''Mohotkata'' uses a lion, '''' uses a peacock, ''Dhumraketu'' uses a horse, and ''Gajanana'' uses a mouse, in the four incarnations of Ganesha+listed in the ''Ganesha Purana''. Jain depictions of Ganesha show his vahana variously as a mouse, elephant, tortoise, ram, or peacock.
Ganesha is often shown riding on or attended by a mouse+, shrew+ or rat+. Martin-Dubost says that the rat began to appear as the principal vehicle in sculptures of Ganesha in central and western India during the 7th century; the rat was always placed close to his feet. The mouse as a mount first appears in written sources in the ''Matsya Purana+'' and later in the ''Brahmananda Purana'' and ''Ganesha Purana'', where Ganesha uses it as his vehicle in his last incarnation. TheGanapati Atharvashirsa+ includes a meditation verse on Ganesha that describes the mouse appearing on his flag. The names '''' (rat-banner) appear in the ''Ganesha Sahasranama+''.
The mouse is interpreted in several ways. According to Grimes, "Many, if not most of those who interpret
Ganesha is ''Vighneshvara'' or ''Vighnaraja'' or ''Vighnaharta'' (Marathi+), the Lord of Obstacles, both of a material and spiritual order. He is popularly worshipped as a remover of obstacles, though traditionally he also places obstacles in the path of those who need to be checked. Paul Courtright says that "his task in the divine scheme of things, his ''dharma+'', is to place and remove obstacles. It is his particular territory, the reason for his creation."
Krishan notes that some of Ganesha's names reflect shadings of multiple roles that have evolved over time. Dhavalikar ascribes the quick ascension of Ganesha in the Hindu pantheon, and the emergence of the '' (obstacle-creator) to '''' (obstacle-averter). However, both functions continue to be vital to his character.
Ganesha is considered to be the Lord of letters and learning. In Sanskrit, the word ''buddhi+'' is a feminine noun that is variously translated as intelligence, wisdom, or intellect. The concept of buddhi is closely associated with the personality of Ganesha, especially in the Puranic period, when many stories stress his cleverness and love of intelligence. One of Ganesha's names in the ''Ganesha Purana+'' and the ''Ganesha Sahasranama+'' is ''Buddhipriya''. This name also appears in a list of 21 names at the end of the ''Ganesha Sahasranama'' that Ganesha says are especially important. The word ''priya'' can mean "fond of", and in a marital context it can mean "lover" or "husband", so the name may mean either "Fond of Intelligence" or "Buddhi's Husband".
Ganesha is identified with the Hindu mantra+ Aum+, also spelled ''Om''. The term '''' (Aum is his form), when identified with Ganesha, refers to the notion that he personifies the primal sound. The ''Ganapati Atharvashirsa+'' attests to this association. Chinmayananda translates the relevant passage as follows:
Some devotees see similarities between the shape of Ganesha's body in iconography and the shape of Aum in the Devanāgarī+ and Tamil+ scripts.
According to Kundalini yoga+, Ganesha resides in the first chakra+, called Muladhara+ (]." Thus, Ganesha has a permanent abode in every being at the Muladhara. Ganesha holds, supports and guides all other chakras, thereby "governing the forces that propel the wheel of life+".
Though Ganesha is popularly held to be the son of Shiva+ and Parvati+, the Puranic+ myths give different versions about his birth. In some he was created by Parvati, in another he was created by Shiva ''and'' Parvati, in another he appeared mysteriously and was discovered by Shiva and Parvati or he was born from the elephant headed goddess Malini after she drank Parvati's bath water that had been thrown in the river.
The family includes his brother the war god Kartikeya+, who is also called Skanda and Murugan. Regional differences dictate the order of their births. In northern India, Skanda is generally said to be the elder, while in the south, Ganesha is considered the first born. In northern India+, Skanda was an important martial deity from about 500 BCE to about 600 CE, after which worship of him declined significantly. As Skanda fell, Ganesha rose. Several stories tell of sibling rivalry between the brothers and may reflect sectarian tensions.
Ganesha's marital status, the subject of considerable scholarly review, varies widely in mythological stories.For a review, see: Cohen, Lawrence. "The Wives of ''). Another pattern connects Ganesha with the goddess of culture and the arts, Sarasvati+ or (particularly inMaharashtra+). He is also associated with the goddess of luck and prosperity, Lakshmi+. Another pattern, mainly prevalent in the Bengal+ region, links Ganesha with the banana tree, Kala Bo+.
The ''Shiva Purana+'' says that Ganesha had begotten two sons: (profit). In northern Indian variants of this story, the sons are often said to be . The 1975 Hindi film+ ''Jai Santoshi Maa+'' shows Ganesha married to Riddhi and Siddhi and having a daughter named Santoshi Ma+, the goddess of satisfaction. This story has no Puranic basis, but Anita Raina Thapan and Lawrence Cohen
Ganesha is worshipped on many religious and secular occasions, especially at the beginning of ventures such as buying a vehicle or starting a business. K.N. Somayaji says, "there can hardly be a [Hindu] home [in India] which does not house an idol of Ganapati. [..] Ganapati, being the most popular deity in India, is worshipped by almost all castes and in all parts of the country". Devotees believe that if Ganesha is propitiated, he grants success, prosperity and protection against adversity.
Ganesha is a non-sectarian deity. Hindus of all denominations invoke him at the beginning of prayers, important undertakings, and religious ceremonies. Dancers and musicians, particularly in southern India, begin art performances such as the Bharatnatyam+ dance with a prayer to Ganesha. Mantra+s such as ''Om Shri Ganapataye Namah'' (Om, , Salutation to the Lord of Hosts).
Devotees offer Ganesha sweets such as modak+a and small sweet balls called laddu+s. He is often shown carrying a bowl of sweets, called a '') or red flowers. grass (''Cynodon dactylon+'') and other materials are also used in his worship.
Festivals associated with Ganesh are Ganesh Chaturthi or Vināyaka chaturthī in the ''magha+'' (January/February)."
An annual festival honours Ganesha for ten days, starting on Ganesha Chaturthi, which typically falls in late August or early September. The festival begins with people bringing in clay idols of Ganesha, symbolising Ganesha's visit. The festival culminates on the day of Ananta Chaturdashi+, when idols (''murti+s'') of Ganesha are immersed in the most convenient body of water. Today, Hindus across India celebrate the Ganapati festival with great fervour, though it is most popular in the state of Maharashtra. The festival also assumes huge proportions in Mumbai+, Pune+, and in the surrounding belt of Ashtavinayaka temples.
In Hindu temples, Ganesha is depicted in various ways: as an acolyte or subordinate deity (''''); or as the principal deity of the temple (; lit. "eight Ganesha (shrines)") in Maharashtra are particularly well known. Located within a 100-kilometer radius of the city of Pune+, each of the eight shrines celebrates a particular form of Ganapati, complete with its own lore and legend. The eight shrines are: Morgaon+, Siddhatek+, Pali+, Mahad+, Theur+, Lenyadri+, Ozar+ and Ranjangaon+.
There are many other important Ganesha temples at the following locations: Wai+ in Maharashtra; Ujjain+ in Madhya Pradesh+; Jodhpur+, Nagaur+ and Raipur (Pali+) in Rajasthan+; Baidyanath in Bihar+; Baroda+, Dholaka, and Valsad+ in Gujarat+ and Dhundiraj Temple inVaranasi+, Uttar Pradesh+.
Prominent Ganesha temples in southern India include the following:
Kanipakam+ in Chittoor+; the Jambukesvara Temple+ at Tiruchirapalli+; at Rameshvaram+ andSuchindram+ in Tamil Nadu+; at Malliyur, Kottarakara+, Pazhavangadi+, Kasargod+ in Kerala+,Hampi+, and Idagunji+ in Karnataka+; and Bhadrachalam+ in Andhra Pradesh+.
T. A. Gopinatha notes, "Every village however small has its own image of '''' (Sacred fig+) trees [...], in a niche [...] in temples of '''' (Shiva) and also in separate shrines specially constructed in '''' is invariably seen." Ganesha temples have also been built outside of India, including Southeast Asia+,Nepal+ (including the four ''Vinayaka'' shrines in the Kathmandu valley+), and in several western countries.
Ganesha appeared in his classic form as a clearly recognizable deity with well-defined iconographic attributes in the early 4th to 5th centuries.Narain, A. K. "Gaņesa: A Protohistory of the Idea and the Icon", in: Brown, p. 19. Shanti Lal Nagar says that the earliest known iconic image of Ganesha is in the niche of the Shiva temple at Bhumra, which has been dated to the Gupta period+. His independent cult appeared by about the 10th century. Narain summarizes the controversy between devotees and academics regarding the development of Ganesha as follows:
Courtright reviews various speculative theories about the early history of Ganesha, including supposed tribal traditions and animal cults, and dismisses all of them in this way:
tradition.... These historical locations are intriguing to be sure, but the fact remains that they are all speculations, variations on the Dravidian hypothesis, which argues that anything not attested to in the Vedic and Indo-European sources must have come into literature and the iconography of
Thapan's book on the development of Ganesha devotes a chapter to speculations about the role elephants had in early India but concludes that, "although by the second century CE the elephant-headed ''. There is no evidence of a deity by this name having an elephant or elephant-headed form at this early stage. had yet to make his debut."
In 1993, a metal plate depiction of an elephant-headed figure, interpreted as Ganesha, was discovered in Lorestan Province+, Iran, dating back to 1,200 BCE. First terracotta+ images of Ganesha are from 1st century CE found in Ter, Pal, Verrapuram and Chandraketugarh. These figures are small, with elephant head, two arms, and chubby physique.Kumar, Ajit, 2007. "A Unique Early Historic Terracotta Ganesa Image from Pal" in Kala, The Journal of Indian Art History Congress, Vol XI. (2006-2007), pp. 89-91 The earliest Ganesha icons in stone were carved in Mathura during Kushan times (2nd-3rd centuries CE).
One theory of the origin of Ganesha is that he gradually came to prominence in connection with the four Vinayakas+ ( were a group of four troublesome demons who created obstacles and difficulties but who were easily propitiated. The name Vināyaka is a common name for Ganesha both in the and in Buddhist Tantras. Krishan is one of the academics who accepts this view, stating flatly of Ganesha, "He is a non-vedic god. His origin is to be traced to the four Vināyakas, evil spirits, of the ''Mānavagŗhyasūtra'' (7th-4th century BCE) who cause various types of evil and suffering". Depictions of elephant-headed human figures, which some identify with Ganesha, appear in Indian art+ and coinage+ as early as the 2nd century. According to Ellawala, the elephant-headed Ganesha as lord of the Ganas was known to the people of Sri Lanka+ in the early pre-Christian era.Ellawala, p. 159.
A 17th century +i manuscript of the [[Mahabharata">Rajasthan+i manuscript of the [[Mahabharata+i manuscript of the [[Mahabharata" style="color: #CCCCCC;">+. depicting Vyasa+narrating the Mahabharata to Ganesha, who serves as the scribe.
The title "Leader of the group" (Sanskrit: ''-who is the deity of the hymn-and ', translated "Lord of the companies (of the ''Maruts'')." However, Rocher notes that the more recent Ganapatya literature often quotes the Rigvedic verses to give Vedic respectability to Ganesha .
Two verses in texts belonging to Black Yajurveda+, '''' (10.1), appeal to a deity as "the tusked one" (). These names are suggestive of Ganesha, and the 14th century commentator Sayana+ explicitly establishes this identification. The description of Dantin, possessing a twisted trunk ('' have been proven to be very late interpolations, and thus are not very helpful for determining the early formation of the deity".
Ganesha does not appear in Indian epic+ literature that is dated to the Vedic period+. A late interpolation to the epic poem ''Mahabharata+'' says that the sage Vyasa+ ('s dictation of the ''Mahabharata'' in this interpolation. Richard L. Brown dates the story to the 8th century, andMoriz Winternitz+ concludes that it was known as early as c. 900, but it was not added to the ''Mahabharata'' some 150 years later. Winternitz also notes that a distinctive feature in South India+n manuscripts of the ''Mahabharata'' is their omission of this Ganesha legend. The term '''' and '''' ("Creator of Obstacles") in ''Vanaparva'' is also believed to be an interpolation and does not appear in the critical edition.
Stories about Ganesha often occur in the Puranic+ corpus. Brown notes while the Puranas "defy precise chronological ordering", the more detailed narratives of Ganesha's life are in the late texts, c. 600-1300. Yuvraj Krishan says that the Puranic myths about the birth of Ganesha and how he acquired an elephant's head are in the later Puranas, which were composed from c. 600 onwards. He elaborates on the matter to say that references to Ganesha in the earlier Puranas, such as the Vayu and Brahmanda Puranas, are later interpolations made during the 7th to 10th centuries.
In his survey of Ganesha's rise to prominence in Sanskrit literature+, Ludo Rocher notes that:
Ganesha's rise to prominence was codified in the 9th century, when he was formally included as one of the five primary deities of Smartism+. The 9th-century philosopher Adi Shankara+popularized the "worship of the five forms" (Panchayatana puja+) system among orthodox Brahmins of the Smarta tradition. This worship practice invokes the five deities Ganesha, Vishnu+, Shiva, Devi+, and Surya+. Adi Shankara instituted the tradition primarily to unite the principal deities of these five major sects on an equal status. This formalized the role of Ganesha as a complementary deity.
Once Ganesha was accepted as one of the five principal deities of Brahmanism+, some Brahmin+s chose Ganesha as their principal deity. They developed the Ganapatya+ tradition, as seen in the ''Ganesha Purana'' and the ''Mudgala Purana''.
The date of composition for the ''Ganesha Purana'' and the ''Mudgala Purana''-and their dating relative to one another-has sparked academic debate. Both works were developed over time and contain age-layered strata. Anita Thapan reviews comments about dating and provides her own judgement. "It seems likely that the core of the Ganesha Purana appeared around the twelfth and thirteenth centuries", she says, "but was later interpolated." Lawrence W. Preston considers the most reasonable date for the ''Ganesha Purana'' to be between 1100 and 1400, which coincides with the apparent age of the sacred sites mentioned by the text.
R.C. Hazra suggests that the ''Mudgala Purana'' is older than the ''Ganesha Purana'', which he dates between 1100 and 1400. However, Phyllis Granoff finds problems with this relative dating and concludes that the ''Mudgala Purana'' was the last of the philosophical texts concerned with Ganesha. She bases her reasoning on the fact that, among other internal evidence, the ''Mudgala Purana'' specifically mentions the ''Ganesha Purana'' as one of the four Puranas (the ''Brahma'', the ''Brahmanda'', the ''Ganesha'', and the ''Mudgala'' Puranas) which deal at length with Ganesha. While the kernel of the text must be old, it was interpolated until the 17th and 18th centuries as the worship of Ganapati became more important in certain regions. Another highly regarded scripture, the Ganapati Atharvashirsa, was probably composed during the 16th or 17th centuries.
Commercial and cultural contacts extended India's influence in Western and Southeast Asia. Ganesha is one of a number of Hindu deities who consequently reached foreign lands.
Ganesha was particularly worshipped by traders and merchants, who went out of India for commercial ventures. From approximately the 10th century onwards, new networks of exchange developed including the formation of trade guilds and a resurgence of money circulation. During this time, Ganesha became the principal deity associated with traders. The earliest inscription invoking Ganesha before any other deity is associated with the merchant community.
Hindus migrated to Maritime Southeast Asia+ and took their culture, including Ganesha, with them. Statues of Ganesha are found throughout the region, often beside Shiva sanctuaries. The forms of Ganesha found in the Hindu art of Java+, Bali+, and Borneo+ show specific regional influences. The spread of Hindu culture throughout Southeast Asia established Ganesha worship in modified forms in Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand. In Indochina+, Hinduism and Buddhism+were practiced side by side, and mutual influences can be seen in the iconography of Ganesha in the region. In Thailand, Cambodia, and among the Hindu classes of the Chams+ in Vietnam, Ganesha was mainly thought of as a remover of obstacles.Brown, p. 182. Today in Buddhist Thailand, Ganesha is regarded as a remover of obstacles, the god of success.
Before the arrival of Islam+, Afghanistan had close cultural ties with India, and the adoration of both Hindu and Buddhist deities was practiced. Examples of sculptures from the 5th to the 7th centuries have survived, suggesting that the worship of Ganesha was then in vogue in the region.
Ganesha appears in Mahayana+ Buddhism, not only in the form of the Buddhist god , he is often shown dancing. This form, called +,(Shiva) a popular Tibetan deity. Other depictions show him as the Destroyer of Obstacles, and sometimes dancing. Ganesha appears in China and Japan in forms that show distinct regional character. In northern China+, the earliest known stone statue of Ganesha carries an inscription dated to 531. In Japan, where Ganesha is known as Kangiten+, the Ganesha cult was first mentioned in 806.
The canonical literature of Jainism+ does not mention the worship of Ganesha.Krishan, p. 121. However, most Jains worship Ganesha, for he appears to have taken over certain functions of Kubera+. Jain ties with the trading community support the idea that Jainism took up Ganesha worship as a result of commercial connections. The earliest known Jain Ganesha statue dates to about the 9th century. A 15th-century Jain text lists procedures for the installation of Ganapati images. Images of Ganesha appear in the Jain temples of Rajasthan and Gujarat.